C) Other evidence / traces
Not intended as a complete list, however examples of other Viking evidence and traces left behind which do not fit into the previous categories. Examples include:
- Genetic mapping and analysis – In recent years, the advancement in genetics and mapping of genes has allowed for studies of common gene pools which give indications of migrations and common ancestors. For instance a study showed that it was predominantly Scandinavian men and women of Irish heritage that colonized north Atlantic islands.
- Biology – Besides tree ring dating, then trees’ growth rings are telling a great deal about the climate and weather during the Viking Age. Interestingly the climate seems to have been warmer during the Viking Age than it is today in “cold northern Scandinavia”. Likewise the study of plants, crops and domesticated animals are contributing to our understanding of both migrations and day-to-day life.
- Language and naming influences – Another field of study that has made some surprisingly solid and interesting findings about the Viking Age, is within linguistics. Names of everyday items have survived centuries, and even more telling is the names of places and towns. For examples the analysis of town names in England has contributed to mapping the borders of the Danelaw, and areas of Viking influence in France.
- Law principles – Some legal texts written during the Middle Ages contain principles that can be traced back to Viking laws. For instance rules for punishment of crimes, conducting trade, how to behave in the presence of a king, or legislation about the organization of shipbuilding.